Wireless Access Technology


Both 4G (LTE) and 5G (NR) are mobile wireless access technologies that provide mobile devices with the speed of Ethernet to experience 3D quality video playback services. Where LTE and WiMAX are two different technologies that fulfil the definition of 4G, 5G (NR) is a new concept.

What is 4G?

The 4th Generation Communication System, also known as LTE (Long Term Evolution). In the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) definition, any wireless data network system that reaches or exceeds 100 Mbps can be called 4G.
4G technology is a broadband wireless access method based on IP protocol, which is characterised by high data transmission rate, low latency, wide coverage, large capacity and high security. The uplink rate of data transmission can reach 20Mbit/s and the downlink rate is as high as 100Mbit/s, which can meet the requirements of almost all users for wireless services. It realises high-bandwidth applications such as high-definition video streaming, online gaming and cloud computing, which enable users to browse the web, download files and make video calls faster, and provide users with a better mobile Internet experience.


4G uses LTE as the main wireless access technology

which is divided into FDD LTE and TDD LTE system modes


FDD uplink and downlink data transmission simultaneously

FDD 'Frequency Division Duplex' means that two separate channels are required to transmit data, one channel is used to send information down and the other channel is used to send information up. A protected band exists between the two channels to prevent interference between neighbouring transmitters and receivers. This is equivalent to a two-way highway, where vehicles on each side go their own way, complementing each other's interference. The protected band is the equivalent of a barrier in the middle of the road.

Separate TDD uplink and downlink data transmission requires

signal switching to change upload and download channels

TDD 'time-division duplex' transmission and reception signals are carried out in different time slots of the same frequency channel, separated from each other by a certain guarantee time. Can be compared to a log bridge, in the same time, only one side of the people through, that is to say, the data upload and download is in the same channel alternately.


4G Key Technologies?

OFDM Technology

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a high-speed transmission technology in wireless environment, which is one of the core technologies of 4G mobile communication technology, and its main idea is to divide a given channel into many orthogonal sub-channels in the frequency domain, and use a sub-carrier for modulation on each sub-channel, and transmit each sub-carrier in parallel.OFDM can eliminate or reduce the interference between signal waveforms, and is insensitive to multipath fading and Doppler shift insensitivity, thus improving spectrum utilisation and data transmission rate.

MIMO Technology

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology is another core technology of 4G mobile communication technology, using multiple transmitter and receiver antennas for spatial diversity technology, which uses discrete multiple antennas to effectively decompose the communication link into a number of parallel sub-channels,significantly increase capacity.

Based on IP Core Network Technology

4G mobile communication system core network is an all-IP-based network, can achieve seamless interconnection between different networks and globally unified network standards. The core network is independent of a variety of specific wireless access programmes, can provide end-to-end IP services, can be compatible with the existing core network and PSTN, which has an open structure that allows a variety of air interfaces to access the core network, and at the same time can be separated from the business, control and transmission. This improves the user experience.

QoS Technology

Quality of service technology, which can prioritise and schedule data according to the user's needs and the condition of the network, thus ensuring the stability and reliability of data transmission.

Security Technology

4G mobile communication technology employs a variety of security technologies, including encryption, authentication and protection, which can ensure users' communication security and privacy protection.


Rule of evolution of mobile communication technologies

'G' stands for generation, every 10 years a cycle, 5G is the fifth cycle, is the fifth generation of mobile communications technology

G      Years       Main Representation Services                            Peak Rate            Bandwidths

Voice (analogue communications)
SMS (digital text)
Multimedia social (mobile data)
Internet, mobile payments (mobile broadband)
Virtual Reality, 'Zero' Latency Sensing (IoT)

What is 5G?

5G is the 5th Generation Mobile Communication Technology (5G), following 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks based on the OFDM of the New Radio design of the global wireless standard.
5G is an end-to-end ecosystem with high speed, low-latency, high-capacity, high-reliability, and large connectivity, which will create an all-mobile and all-connected society that aims to connect virtually everyone and everything, including machines, objects and devices. It will provide users with more immersive and ultimate business experiences such as augmented reality, virtual reality, ultra-high-definition (3D) video, solve the problem of communication between people and things, and meet the needs of IoT applications such as mobile medical care, automotive networking, smart home, industrial control, and environmental monitoring.


Among the 5G operating modes established and recognised by the 3GPP, there are NSA (non-standalone networking mode) and SA (networking mode)

· Support eMBB
· LTE as an anchor point, reuse of 4G core network, rapid introduction of 5G NR
· 5G is overlaid on 4G networks without the need to provide continuous coverage

In NSA mode, the signal is received by 4G as the terminal, and then sent to the 5G base station, which then transmits it to the cloud database for processing, and then the cloud server sends the data back to the 5G base station, which then makes a judgement based on various factors such as the current signal rate and the source of interference, whether to return the information from the 5G base station or to continue to transmit the signal from the 4G base station.

· Support eMBB/uRLLC/mMTCand Network Slicing
· New 5G Core required
· High requirements for continuous 5G coverage

The 5G base station in SA mode is a separately established 5G base station, which can be used directly as access to user terminals and in the back-end database, and the rate and spectrum can reach high data.


5G key technology?

Millimetre Wave Technology

Millimetre wave refers to radio waves with RF frequencies between 30 GHz and 300 GHz and wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm.5G mainly uses two ends of the frequency, respectively FR1 band and FR2 band:

FR1 range: 450MHz~6GHz, also known as Sub-6GHz band

FR2 range: 24.25GHz~52.GHz

As most of the bands covered by FR2 are less than 10mm wavelength, this part of the frequency band is therefore named 'millimetre wave (mmWave)', which can achieve higher frequency and larger bandwidth, thus increasing network speed and capacity. With high propagation loss and weak penetration, mmWave is suitable for deployment in Small Cells, indoor, fixed wireless and backhaul scenarios.


Massive MIMO Technology

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a communication technique that uses multiple antennas simultaneously at the transmitter and receiver ends of a wireless communication system. The massive MIMO refers to a MIMO system in which the number of antenna roots reaches tens or hundreds or more, which can achieve higher spectral efficiency and better channel capacity, thus improving network performance. The number of antennas of an ordinary MIMO system is generally 4 (2T2R), 8 (4T4R) or 16 (8T8R), while the antennas of a massive MIMO system can be up to 64T64R, 128T128R, or even 256T256R. The antennas of a normal MIMO system are generally arranged only in the horizontal direction, while the antennas of a massive MIMO system are arranged in both horizontal and vertical directions to form a plane.

Simultaneous Same Frequency Full Duplex CCFD

Traditional duplexing methods: TDD and FDD, they both need to divide the communication resources into two for two-way communication, requiring double the resource overhead.
Simultaneous same-frequency full duplex CCFD: two-way communication is achieved at the same time and in the same frequency band, which improves the spectrum efficiency and increases the data throughput of the system.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDM and F-OFDM

OFDM signals in wireless communication 4G network, although the protected band is not required in the continuous frequency band, the protected band is still used at the edge of the frequency band, the bandwidth occupied by this protected band reaches 10% of the total bandwidth, which means that 10% of the frequency resources are wasted.
The improvement in 5G is the use of F-OFDM, where leakage is greatly improved and the band occupied by protected bands is reduced to 2-3%, resulting in an increase in data rates of around 8%.

Filter team multicarrier technique FBMC

In OFDM systems, due to the multipath effect of the wireless channel and thus inter-symbol interference occurs. In order to eliminate the inter-symbol interference (ISL), a protection interval is inserted between the symbols. Usually the protection interval is filled by CP (Cycle Prefix), which is a system overhead and does not transmit valid data, thus reducing the spectral efficiency.
On the other hand, FBMC utilises a set of non-interleaved band-limited subcarriers to achieve multi-carrier transmission. FMC has very little inter-carrier interference caused by frequency bias and does not require CP (Cycle Prefix), which greatly improves the frequency efficiency.

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)

NOMA adds a dimension to OFDM - the power domain. The transmitter sends non-orthogonal, actively introducing interference (although individual users are still OFDMA, the subcarriers of different users overlap in the same frequency band, so that the overall 'non-orthogonal multiple access'); the receiver uses serial interference cancellation SIC technology to demodulate (separating the most powerful signals in order).
The original orthogonal multiple access OFDMA requires strict access procedures and scheduling control, which is costly and limits the number of nodes that can be accessed.NOMA can take advantage of differences in path losses to superimpose multiple transmit signals to improve signal gain. It enables all mobile devices in the same cell coverage area to obtain the maximum accessible bandwidth, which can solve the network challenges due to large-scale connectivity.

Network Slicing Technology

Network slicing is to divide the physical network into multiple virtual networks, each corresponding to a different scenario, to meet different service requirements (latency, bandwidth, reliability), each network slice operates independently, each taking what it needs, overall more effective use of resources, to achieve classification management, flexible deployment.


What are the main enhancements made
by 5G over 4G?

*Traffic density: the total number of traffic flows per unit volume.

*Connection density: the total number of online devices that can be supported per unit volume Latency: the spacing between the sending end and the receiving end of the received data.

*Mobility: the maximum number of mobile terminals that can support a user's terminal.

*Energy efficiency: the amount of data that can be transmitted without consuming a unit of energy.

*User experience efficiency: the amount of MAC-layer user-plane data transmission per unit of time that a user receives.

*Spectrum efficiency: per cell or per unit area. Throughput provided per unit of spectrum resource.

*Peak efficiency: the maximum rate available to the user.


5G Applications

(1)Enhanced mobile broadband         (2)Massive machine communications         (3)Ultra-high reliability and low-latency communications


VR: Virtual Reality, immersed in the virtual world through various headgear, mostly used for gaming.

AR: Augmented Reality, superimposing virtual things into the real world, such as Pokemon Go.

MR: Mixed Reality, superimpose the real thing into the virtual world, through the algorithm to the two-dimensional video shot by the camera for three-dimensional reconstruction, to generate virtual three-dimensional objects, and then superimposed into the virtual world.

2. Vehicle Networking

Autonomous driving technology, remote control driving, formation driving, assistive technology.


3. Telemedicine

Remote ultrasound, remote surgery, etc.


4. Smart City

Smart Transport, Smart Healthcare, Smart Public Safety, Smart Public Utilities, Smart Education and Technology, Smart Citizen Services, People Eating, Clothing and Sleeping, Smart City: Anyone, Anywhere, Anytime, Getting the Services They Need.




Y4-D 4G/5G Wi-Fi Router


Y6 300Mbps Wireless 4G Router


Y1-C 300Mbps Wireless 4G Router

4G/5G Wireless Access Technology